Today we continue our voyage through the history of architecture, reaching a few more important stages of development of the last half of the millennium. We will check on the ancient American civilizations that left an important mark on architecture, the go through medieval and colonial styles, until we reach the present epoch.
- Pre-Columbian Architecture (2000 -1600 BC)
Include Mesoamerican style, Inca, Olmec, Mayan, Aztec and the ancient North America. Basically, the architecture includes the pre-Columbian period before the emergence of European colonizers in the sixteenth century. The representative structures are buildings used for ceremonies, monuments, highly developed network of roads in western South American continent and the first suspension bridges in the world. Also, pre-Columbian peoples had special abilities regarding the cutting of the stone; the builders did not use their mortar, textiles, and building large platforms was their number one specialty. Pre-Columbian architecture was first noted by using pyramids, the largest in the world after the Egyptian. The vestiges of Machu Picchu represent the highlight of their culture.
- Medieval Architecture (500 – 1600 AD)
Representative of the European Middle Ages, Medieval architecture is influenced primarily by religion (see the cathedrals and the cross-shaped Latin churches) and military (castles and fortifications), but also civil mansions belonging to the elite stood out. These times uploaded a series of events, such as the pre-Roman period and the Roman expansion (war), the Gothic period (plague) and Renaissance marked by reconstruction. These periods are characterized by round arches, cross-shaped pillars, stone structures for large buildings, such as houses, large windows, stained glass and do not forget the famous gargoyle, whose purpose represents a never-ending reason of debate.
- Colonial Architecture (1500 – 2000 AD)
It had developed in times when great powers of Europe wanted to colonize new territories; think of Pocahontas, Magellan, Columbus, Lewis and Clark and you will recognize the colonization period. Architecture of the colonized territories was carried out using material found by colonizers on the spot. European influences were exported to these areas, but not entirely as the new architectural styles were born and raised on their own. This period is defined by Baroque style, very elaborated and with many details; Classicism – that was based on symmetry and proportion -, Renaissance, characterized by the return to old architectural styles, Orientalism (imitating eastern patterns) and Art Nouveau (organic forms and structures).
- Modern Architecture (years 1900 - 1940)
Expressionism, Art Deco, international style ... This modern era is limited when it comes to architecture. The first thing that comes to mind is the Hollywood of yesteryear. The beginnings of modern epics were based on buildings with similar characteristics. The most important feature was the simplification of forms and waiver of ornaments. In 1940, this new type of architecture was named "international style" and became synonym to the words of Louis Sullivan: "Functionality is more important than form." Architectural functionalism is the principle according to which architects must "draw" a building concordance with its intent.
- Contemporary Architecture (years 1950 - present)
It can be considered an integral part of Modern architecture, but it begins to take its own shape. These are the times when man reached the moon, after having been inspired by the idea of futurism in architecture. Thus postmodern architecture (defined by aesthetic innovations) and deconstructive architecture (fragmentation and controlled chaos) has arisen. Last trend is Green Architecture, known as sustainable architecture, characterized by the use of techniques that take into account environmental protection.
Pic8 en.wikipedia.orgWHEN DID ARCHITECTURE APPEAR AND HOW HAS IT EVOLVED? WHEN DID ARCHITECTURE APPEAR AND HOW HAS IT EVOLVED?